Microcontrollers

Microcontrollers, also referred to as MCUs (microcontroller units), are embedded semiconductor devices used in circuit board design. They are essentially a computer within an integrated circuit (IC). Microcontrollers are mostly used in single-function ’embedded’ applications, unlike microprocessors which are designed for general-purpose work in Personal Computers, Tablets and Smartphones. Microcontrollers are limited in their clock speed compared to microprocessors by the relative slowness of their non-volatile Flash program memory.


What are they made up of?


Microcontrollers contain single or multiple processors (sometimes referred to as CPUs), plus memory and I/O peripherals. These peripherals include timers, ADCs (analogue-to-digital converters) and DACs (digital-to-analogue converters).


What does “8-bit” mean?


Microcontrollers have a data bus width which describes the amount of data the MCU can process at a time. For example, an 8-bit microcontroller can process 8 bits at one time. Popular data bus widths include 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit MCUs.


What packages are there?


MCUs come in standard chip packages with various pin counts. Package types include:


  • LQFP

  • PDIP

  • QFN

  • SOIC

  • SSOP

  • TQFP

  • TSSOP

What are ARM processor cores?


Microcontrollers often contain an ARM microprocessor core. ARM represents an architecture developed by ARM Holdings, which is used by other companies to manufacture microprocessors and other devices such as System-on-Chip (SoCs).


  • Cortex-M0

  • Cortex-M0+

  • Cortex-M1

  • Cortex-M3

  • Cortex-M4

  • Cortex-M7

  • Cortex-M23

  • Cortex-M33

  • Cortex-M35P

Where are microcontrollers used?


  • Computers

  • Automotive

  • Robotics

  • Automation

  • Medical equipment

  • Home appliances

...
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RL78/G12 HWQFN Surface Mount 24 RL78 16bit 2 (Data Flash) kB, 4 (Code Flash) kB 24MHz 512 B - - 11 - 1.8 → 5.5 V
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R8C / 33C LQFP Surface Mount 32 R8C CPU 16bit 4 (Flash) kB, 16 (ROM) kB 20MHz 1.5 kB - - 12 - 1.8 → 5.5 V
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RL78/G12 HWQFN Surface Mount 24 RL78 16bit 2 (Data Flash) kB, 8 (Code Flash) kB 24MHz 768 B - - 11 - 1.8 → 5.5 V
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RX600 LFQFP Surface Mount 144 RX 32bit 512 kB 100MHz 96 kB 2 1 12 2 2.7 → 3.6 V
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V850 LQFP Surface Mount 100 V850ES 32bit 256 kB 32MHz 24 kB - - 12 5 2.85 → 3.6 V
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RX600 LFQFP Surface Mount 144 RX 32bit 512 kB 100MHz 96 kB 2 1 12 2 2.7 → 3.6 V
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V850 LFQFP Surface Mount 100 V850E1 32bit 256 kB 64MHz 12 kB - - 18 - 3.5 → 5.5 V
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78K SSOP Surface Mount 16 78K0 8bit 8 kB 20MHz 512 B - 1 4 - 1.8 → 5.5 V
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