Logic Gates

Logic gates are physical components in a circuit that control the flow of a signal by implementing a Boolean function, processing a signal to binary information. Logic gates are foundational in logic circuits, or in any electronic circuit process that involves digital to analogue signal conversion, or the flow of digital information. Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors as electrical switches, but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays (relay logic), vacuum tubes, optics, molecules, fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, or even mechanical elements.

Types of Logic Gate

Logic gates have distinct logic functions. The most common of these are known as basic gates. These include:

  • AND Gates - these gates have multiple inputs that are processed into a single signal output depending on the positive combination of high signals in the inputs. It will only produce a high signal if both inputs register as high (e.g. two ones will result in a one, otherwise, it will have an output of zero).
  • OR Gates - similar to the AND gate, an OR gate has multiple inputs and a single output. In this case, it does not require a positive combination of one signals but will implement logical produce a high signal if one or all of the inputs are high. (e.g a one and a zero, or two ones, may produce a high signal, but two zeros will produce zeros.)
  • NOT Gates -also known as inverters, the NOT gates will process the signal as the opposite of its value (eg. a one will invert as a zero, and a zero will invert as a 1.)

There are also combined function logic gates that modify typical functions with an inversion.

  • NAND Gate - unlike an AND gate, NAND will process two high signals as a zero and all other combinations as a one.
  • NOR Gate - unlike an OR gate, this will produce a one if the inputs register a zero signal in any combination, rather than a high signal.
  • Buffer Gate - a buffer logic gate behaves in the opposite manner of a NOT gate, in that it passes a signal unchanged from input to output.

Applications

As CPUs employ binary logic, logic gates are essentially the building blocks of computers. As such, they can be found in many kinds of digital circuits such as:

  • Encoders & Decoders
  • Multiplexers & Demultiplexers
  • Full and half adders

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Beskrivning Pris Logic Function Mounting Type Number of Elements Number of Inputs per Gate Schmitt Trigger Input Package Type Pin Count Logic Family Input Type Maximum Operating Supply Voltage Maximum High Level Output Current Maximum Propagation Delay Time @ Maximum CL Minimum Operating Supply Voltage Maximum Low Level Output Current
RS-artikelnummer 709-2699
Tillv. art.nrCD4025BE
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NOR Through Hole 3 3 No PDIP 14 4000 - 18 V -4.2mA 90 ns @ 15 V, 120 ns @ 10 V, 250 ns @ 5 V 3 V 4.2mA
RS-artikelnummer 806-2251
Tillv. art.nrMC74ACT02DG
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NOR Surface Mount 4 2 No SOIC 14 ACT TTL 5.5 V -24mA 9 ns @ 50 pF 4.5 V 24mA
RS-artikelnummer 186-8572
Tillv. art.nr74LVX08M
VarumärkeON Semiconductor
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AND Surface Mount 4 2 - SOIC 14 LVX - 3.6 V -4mA 17 ns @ 50 pF 2 V -4mA
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RS-artikelnummer 219-4277
Tillv. art.nr74HCT08D,653
VarumärkeNexperia
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AND Surface Mount 4 2 - SO14 14 - - - - - - -
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Tillv. art.nr74LVC1G11W6-7
VarumärkeDiodesZetex
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AND Surface Mount 1 3 No SOT-26 5 LVC CMOS 5.5 V -32mA 3.7 ns @ 15 pF 1.65 V 32mA
RS-artikelnummer 805-1510
Tillv. art.nrM74VHC1GT02DFT1G
VarumärkeON Semiconductor
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NOR Surface Mount 1 2 No SC-88A 5 VHC TTL 5.5 V -8mA 17.5 ns @ 50 pF 3 V 8mA
RS-artikelnummer 809-5801
Tillv. art.nrSN74HC32DT
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OR Surface Mount 4 2 No SOIC 14 HC Differential 6 V -4mA 125 ns @ 50 pF 2 V 5.2mA
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Tillv. art.nr74HCT08PW,112
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AND Surface Mount 4 2 - TSSOP 14 HCT TTL 5.5 V -4mA 36ns 4.5 V 4mA
RS-artikelnummer 146-0939
Tillv. art.nr74AHCT1G32SE-7
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OR Surface Mount 1 2 No SOT-353 5 AHCT CMOS 5.5 V -8mA 10 ns @ 50 pF 4.5 V 8mA
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Tillv. art.nrNC7ST08P5X
VarumärkeON Semiconductor
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AND Surface Mount 1 2 No SC-70 5 TinyLogic HST TTL 5.5 V -2mA 31 ns @ 50 pF 4.5 V 2mA
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Tillv. art.nrSN74ALS27AN
VarumärkeTexas Instruments
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NOR Through Hole 3 3 No PDIP 14 ALS - 5.5 V -0.4mA 15 ns @ 4.5 V → 5.5 V 4.5 V 8mA
RS-artikelnummer 178-7015
Tillv. art.nr74LVC00APW,112
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NAND Surface Mount 4 2 No TSSOP 14 LVC - 3.6 V -24mA - 1.2 V 24mA
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Tillv. art.nr74AHC08S14-13
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AND Surface Mount 4 2 Yes SOIC 14 AHC Schmitt Trigger 5.5 V -4mA 14.5 ns @ 50 pF 2 V 8mA
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Tillv. art.nr74AC11008PWR
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AND Surface Mount 4 2 No TSSOP 16 AC CMOS 5.5 V -24mA 6.9ns 3 V 24mA
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Tillv. art.nrMC74VHC02DTR2G
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NOR Surface Mount 4 2 No TSSOP 14 VHC CMOS 5.5 V -8mA 13 ns @ 50 pF 2 V 8mA
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Non-Inverting Surface Mount 1 - - SOT-553 5 LVC CMOS 5.5 V -32mA 6 ns @ 2.7 V 1.65 V 32mA
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AND Surface Mount 1 2 No SOT-23 5 TinyLogic HS - 6 V -2.6mA 17 ns @ 6 V, 20 ns @ 4.5 V, 27 ns @ 3 V, 100 ns @ 2 V 2 V 2.6mA
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AND Surface Mount 4 2 No SOIC 14 HC - 6 V -5.2mA 13 ns @ 6 V, 15 ns @ 4.5 V, 30 ns @ 3 V, 75 ns @ 2 V 2 V 5.2mA
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RS-artikelnummer 218-4588
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NOR Surface Mount 4 2 No SOIC 14 - - - - - - -
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AND Surface Mount 4 2 No TSSOP 14 VHCT CMOS 5.5 V -8mA 9 ns @ 50 pF 4.5 V 8mA